The world's first geneticallymodified humans have been created, it was
revealed last night.
The disclosure that 30 healthy babies were born after a series of experiments
in the United States provoked another furious debate about ethics.
So far, two of the babies have been tested and have been found to contain
genes from three 'parents'.
Fifteen of the children were born in the past three years as a result of one
experimental programme at the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Science of
St Barnabas in New Jersey.
The babies were born to women who had problems conceiving. Extra genes from a
female donor were inserted into their eggs before they were fertilised in an
attempt to enable them to conceive.
Genetic fingerprint tests on two one-year- old children confirm that they
have inherited DNA from three adults --two women and one man.
The fact that the children have inherited the extra genes and incorporated
them into their 'germline' means that they will, in turn, be able to pass them
on to their own offspring.
Altering the human germline - in effect tinkering with the very make-up of
our species - is a technique shunned by the vast majority of the world's
Geneticists fear that one day this method could be used to create new races
of humans with extra, desired characteristics such as strength or high
Writing in the journal Human Reproduction, the researchers, led by fertility
pioneer Professor Jacques Cohen, say that this 'is the first case of human
germline genetic modification resulting in normal healthy children'.
Some experts severely criticised the experiments. Lord Winston, of the
Hammersmith Hospital in West London, told the BBC yesterday: 'Regarding the
treat-ment of the infertile, there is no evidence that this technique is worth
doing . . . I am very surprised that it was even carried out at this stage. It
would certainly not be allowed in Britain.'
John Smeaton, national director of the Society for the Protection of Unborn
Children, said: 'One has tremendous sympathy for couples who suffer infertility
problems. But this seems to be a further illustration of the fact that the whole
process of in vitro fertilisation as a means of conceiving babies leads to
babies being regarded as objects on a production line.
'It is a further and very worrying step down the wrong road for humanity.'
Professor Cohen and his colleagues diagnosed that the women were infertile
because they had defects in tiny structures in their egg cells, called
They took eggs from donors and, using a fine needle, sucked some of the
internal material - containing 'healthy' mitochondria - and injected it into
eggs from the women wanting to conceive.
Because mitochondria contain genes, the babies resulting from the treatment
have inherited DNA from both women. These genes can now be passed down the
germline along the maternal line.
A spokesman for the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA),
which regulates 'assisted reproduction' technology in Britain, said that it
would not license the technique here because it involved altering the
Jacques Cohen is regarded as a brilliant but controversial scientist who has
pushed the boundaries of assisted reproduction technologies.
He developed a technique which allows infertile men to have their own
children, by injecting sperm DNA straight into the egg in the lab.
Prior to this, only infertile women were able to conceive using IVF. Last
year, Professor Cohen said that his expertise would allow him to clone children